PHE said two Pfizer-BioNTech jabs led to 98 percent protection against mortality in both the 40 to 64 and over-65s groups.
The health organisation added for those aged under 40, early estimates show a single dose of the Pfizer jab provides 61 percent effectiveness against symptomatic disease.
A single dose of the Moderna vaccine meanwhile is 72 percent effective against the disease.
Dr Jamie Lopez Bernal, a consultant epidemiologist at PHE, said: “This data gives us even more confidence that the vaccines offer high levels of protection against COVID-19 across all age groups.
“Getting two doses of the vaccine is absolutely vital to protect you and others against the variants in circulation in the UK.
“Remember that you must book your second jab when invited, to gain maximum protection.
“The vaccines are very safe and very effective, and they will protect you and those around you from becoming seriously ill.”